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Major Infectious Disease Causing Agents: Their Differences and the Diseases they Cause

Published Saturday, July 07, 2007

An infectious disease-causing agent is the pathogen (living micro-organism be it bacterial, viral or parasitic) that can cause disease to its host. The major infectious disease causing agents are bacteria (germ), virus, rickettsia (louse) and parasite.

Bacteria are single-celled (unicellular) living organisms with tiny flagella (a tail like appendage that they use to swim). They are invisible to the naked eye and can only be seen with a microscope. They generally have cell walls and may appear in one of several shapes. Bacillus (rodlike), coccus (spherical or ovoid), and spiral (corkscrew or curved). They reproduce by dividing themselves into equal cells (daughter cells). This process is called binary fission. They live in and reproduce in warm, moist environments in the body and other areas where they grow quickly, causing an infection.

Many bacterial diseases generally produce inflammation, swelling and pain from nerve irritation and fever caused by increased body temperature by the body fighting the disease. Bacterial infections can usually be treated with antibiotic. Some examples of bacterial disease are: Cholera - caused by the ingestion of contaminated water and food containing the vibrio cholerae agent by excrement of an individual with the disease. A second one is Syphilis. Syphilis spread by sexual intercourse of an infected person to the sexual partner or from an infected mother to her fetus containing the disease agent Treponema pallidium. Other bacterial diseases include; Dysentery, Leprosy, Plague and Scarlet Fever just to name a few.

Viruses unlike bacteria are smaller and can only be seen using an electron microscope. They are acellular (not cellular) and are structurally very simple. This makes viruses the smallest life form existing. A virus contains a core made of one type of nuclei acid molecule, which can either be a DNA or RNA. This contains the virus's genes. The core of a virus is usually covered by a protein coat and sometimes may be encased by an additional layer (lipid (fat) membrane) called an envelop. They can be rod-shaped, sphere-shaped, or multisided.

Viruses lack the means for self-reproduction outside a host cell and depend on their host cellular system to reproduce. Thus in a sense, they are parasite of a different life form. Unlike parasites however, they are not considered to be to be truly alive. This is due to the fact that when they are outside of a living host they are inert, and are considered living when they multiply within a host cell that they infect. The virus DNA enters cells and uses its DNA to make copy of itself, similar to what the ordinary cell would do. This means that the host body cell is tricked into making many copies of the virus inside the cell host cell thus, killing the cell where the viruses then enter (infecting) other cells to repeat the process. Inside the body viruses produce toxins (poisons) that can cause rashes, aches and fevers. A Virus is very difficult to kill and cannot be killed with antibiotics like bacteria. Some examples of viral diseases are: Aids - transmitted through bodily fluid through from an infected human to another through semen, vaginal secretion, blood and the sharing of needles by the disease agent HIV 1 and HIV 11 and Smallpox - through human to human contact through sneezing and coughing by the disease agent variola. Others include Influenza, Yellow Fever and Lassa Fever just to name a few.

Rickettsia is any group of parasitic bacteria that live in arthropods (e.g. ticks, lice, fleas and mites) and can cause disease if transmitted to humans. Thus, transmission occurs through the infected arthropod vector. Rickettsiae can only survive inside cells and is spread through the bloodstream of the host. They divide (reproduce) by a process called binary fission. Therefore, Rickettsia is some where between bacteria and viruses in comparison. Rickettsia cause disease by the damaging blood vessels in various tissues and organs. Rickettsial diseases basically fall into 4 groups and some example are: 1. Typhus: epidemic typhus, scrub typhus, murine (endemic) typhus, and Brill-Zinsser disease; 2. spotted fever-Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Eastern tick-borne rickettsioses, and rickettsialpox; 3. trench fever and 4. Q fever.

Finally, parasites are organisms whose survival depends on other organisms (the host) to feed , grow and live. They live in or on the living tissue of a host organism which may cause disease to it and generally without killing the host. There are several different sizes of parasites which can be either single-celled protozoa or multi-celled parasites (e.g. worms, flukes, and insects). The infection from a parasite are often transmitted through contact with an intermediate vector or from the result of direct contact with the parasite. Some examples of parasitic infections are : Hookworm - a worm larva that hatch from eggs containing the disease agent Ancylostoma duodenal or Necator americanus found in stool of an infected organism which penetrate the skin of the victim and continue its life cycle. A second one is Malaria. Malaria is disease caused by a protozoan parasites (of disease agents; P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae) which is transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles. Others include Schistosomiasis and Trypanoso.

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12 Comments:

At 10:31 AM, Blogger James said...
 
At 5:15 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...
 
At 2:52 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...
 
At 2:54 AM, Anonymous STALIN BIOTECH said...
 
At 2:56 AM, Anonymous STALIN BIOTECH said...
 
At 11:56 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...
 
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At 8:38 AM, Blogger Jessica Forester said...
 
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At 11:16 AM, Anonymous Natalie said...
 
At 10:17 AM, Anonymous Melissa said...
 
At 3:21 PM, Anonymous Stem cells treatment said...
 

In part -because- they're acellular, virii are not considered to be alive).

That is, they are not the smallest form of life.

you need to leave a list of all disease causing agents, and what illnesses are caused by both physical and biological.

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As Stalin Biotech said Viruses are so small they are not considered alive, more like dust floating around, if you want to talk simply

As Stalin Biotech said Viruses are so small they are not considered alive, more like dust floating around, if you want to talk simply

After 6 months of offering stem cell therapy in combination with the venous angioplasty liberation procedure, patients of CCSVI Clinic have reported excellent health outcomes. Ms. Kasma Gianopoulos of Athens Greece, who was diagnosed with the Relapsing/Remitting form of MS in 1997 called the combination of treatments a “cure”. “I feel I am completely cured” says Ms. Gianopoulos, “my symptoms have disappeared and I have a recovery of many functions, notably my balance and my muscle strength is all coming (back). Even after six months, I feel like there are good changes happening almost every day. Before, my biggest fear was that the changes wouldn’t (hold). I don’t even worry about having a relapse anymore. I’m looking forward to a normal life with my family. I think I would call that a miracle.”
Other recent MS patients who have had Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation (ASCT), or stem cell therapy have posted videos and comments on YouTube. www.youtube.com/watch?v=jFQr2eqm3Cg.
Dr. Avneesh Gupte, the Neurosurgeon at Noble Hospital performing the procedure has been encouraged by results in Cerebral Palsy patients as well. “We are fortunate to be able to offer the treatment because not every hospital is able to perform these types of transplants. You must have the specialized medical equipment and specially trained doctors and nurses”. With regard to MS patients, “We are cautious, but nevertheless excited by what patients are telling us. Suffice to say that the few patients who have had the therapy through us are noticing recovery of neuro deficits beyond what the venous angioplasty only should account for”.
Dr. Unmesh of Noble continues: “These are early days and certainly all evidence that the combination of liberation and stem cell therapies working together at this point is anecdotal. However I am not aware of other medical facilities in the world that offer the synthesis of both to MS patients on an approved basis and it is indeed a rare opportunity for MS patients to take advantage of a treatment that is quite possibly unique in the world”.
Autologous stem cell transplantation is a procedure by which blood-forming stem cells are removed, and later injected back into the patient. All stem cells are taken from the patient themselves and cultured for later injection. In the case of a bone marrow transplant, the HSC are typically removed from the Pelvis through a large needle that can reach into the bone. The technique is referred to as a bone marrow harvest and is performed under a general anesthesia. The incidence of patients experiencing rejection is rare due to the donor and recipient being the same individual.This remains the only approved method of the SCT therapy.

In which one must be cautious not to fix on any one measure regardless of whether it provides good or bad news. Much more can be learned by considering a range of indicators and most importantly, understanding and taking into account the underlying factors that influence the results. Thanks a lot.

In which Many bacterial diseases generally produce inflammation, swelling and pain from nerve irritation and fever caused by increased body temperature by the body fighting the disease. Bacterial infections can usually be treated with antibiotic, Thanks a lot for posting.

Great article which They reproduce by dividing themselves into equal cells . This process is called binary fission. They live in and reproduce in warm, moist environments in the body and other areas where they grow quickly, causing an infection. Nice , Thanks a lot.

Stem cell therapy is an intervention strategy that introduces new adult stem cells into damaged tissue in order to treat disease or injury.

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